Article written with Bogdan Pană – neurologist
Abnormalities in the brain, spine or nerves, represented by biochemical, electrical or structural imbalances, lead to the appearance of disorders of the nervous system, and implicitly to the development of neurological problems. Their causes are vast, the most common being lesions, infections, birth defects or genetic information.
It has been found that neurological disorders have started to increase among young people, and the reasons are related to the unhealthy environment and lifestyle, dominated by stress, reduced time allocated to personal life, lack of sports and proper nutrition. All this increases the risk factors such as cholesterol, blood sugar and blood pressure that can cause neurological disorders.
Dr. Bogdan Pană
The most common neurological disorders
Epilepsy is a disease in which the electrical activity of the brain does not function in optimal parameters, causing unusual behavior, loss of consciousness and the appearance of convulsions. A person may experience multiple types of seizures, some examples of symptoms being staring blankly for a few seconds or uncontrolled movements of the hands and feet.
The symptoms depend on the manifestation of the crisis. If the patient has the same type of seizure, then the symptoms will always be the same. The most common are fear, anxiety, deja vu, loss of consciousness, confusion and muscle contractions.
Stroke is triggered when the blood flow to the brain is interrupted or reduced to some extent, preventing the brain from receiving oxygen and nutrients. From the moment it is triggered, the brain cells begin to die in just a few minutes. The blood is used to carry oxygen and nutrients to the brain, and when it fails to reach due to a clot or other difficulty, it can lead to severe damage to the brain.
In the case of such conditions, treatment as soon as possible is crucial. The faster the treatment, the more likely it is that the impact on the brain will be reduced. Symptoms that may indicate a stroke are difficulty speaking and understanding others, paralysis or numbness of the face, limbs, gait disorder, headache, sudden vision problems in one or both eyes.
Alzheimer’s, a progressive neurological disease associated with aging, is one of the most common conditions that impair memory and thinking. The condition causes atrophy of the brain and destruction of its cells, being the best known factor for dementia. Alzheimer’s causes social behavioral and adaptability problems, undermining an individual’s ability to complete daily tasks, remember information, or be independent.
The main symptoms, usually observed by patients’ relatives, are related to memory. These include: forgotten conversations or meetings, repeated questions and answers, forgetting objects or putting them in the wrong places, forgetting the names of people around you, wandering in a familiar space, or difficulty expressing yourself.
Multiple sclerosis is a disease of the autoimmune component of the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system). It is manifested by the immune system attacking the protective sheath (myelin) that covers the nerve fibers. Thus, it causes communication problems between the brain and the rest of the body. Eventually, the disease can cause permanent damage or nerve damage.
Symptoms vary from person to person, depending on the location of the lesions. Some of the symptoms are weakness or numbness of a limb, unsteady gait, lack of coordination, trembling, Lhermitte sign (sore throat), vision problems, dizziness, problems with sexual, intestinal and bladder functions.
Parkinson’s is a neurological disease that affects brain cells, especially dopamine-producing ones.
Symptoms may vary by patient. Baola can start with constipation and odor disturbance. Bradykinesia (slow movements), trembling, muscle stiffness, changes in speech and writing, loss of subconscious movements (automatisms) and incorrect posture are the main symptoms. The first ones are lighter, then they start to get worse on one side of the body, and then affect the other side, not so significantly.
Dyslexia is a complex neurological condition, a learning disorder that involves difficulty reading. It occurs in children with a normal level of intelligence and no visual disturbances, the nature of the problem being centered on the inability to detect the sounds of a speech and to associate them with letters and words. It affects the part of the brain responsible for language and is also called reading disability.
By the time the child starts school, the signs of dyslexia may be very difficult to notice, but some of them may indicate the condition. Late speaking, forgetting letters, numbers, colors, problems pronouncing and learning words can be the first signs before school starts. Later, signs involve difficulty reading, writing, expressing, processing, pronouncing, ordering, and remembering words.
Being classified as a serious disorder of mental abilities, delirium is a condition characterized by an acute onset and a fluctuating manifestation along the way. It generally involves confusion and lack of awareness of the environment, with patients’ perceptions becoming disturbed by hallucinations. The onset of the disease is rapid, most often occurring within hours or days of onset.
Symptoms include chaotic behavior, cognitive deficits, hyperactivity, hypoactivity, impaired wakefulness and sleep deprivation, inability to concentrate, obsession with a particular idea, inconsistent expression, or hallucinations.
Disc herniation is a condition of the spine caused by the rupture of the fibrous ring, a component of a disc located between the vertebrae. The rupture causes problems as it gives access to the central portion of the disc, called the nucleus pulposus, to protrude beyond the fibrous ring that supports it. A herniated disc, which can occur anywhere on the spine, can irritate a nearby nerve. Depending on where the hernia is located, it can cause pain, numbness and weakness in the arm or leg.
If the herniated disc is in the lower back, then the greatest pain is usually felt in the buttocks, thighs and legs. Pain in one side of the leg may also occur. If the disc herniation is in the neck, the greatest pain occurs in the shoulder and arm. This pain may be triggered in the arm or leg when the patient coughs, sneezes, or moves into certain positions. The pain is often described as sharp or burning.
Headaches that appear every few months, are not persistent or of high intensity, should not be a cause for alarm. However, when they become severe and constant, present almost every day, with short breaks, then we can face chronic headaches. In general, this type of condition does not cause a certain kind of pain, but various subcategories manifested differently (throbbing pain, sinus pain, pain in the temples, etc.).
By definition, chronic headaches occur for 15 days or more a month for a long period (over 3 months). Symptoms include severe daily pain, a feeling of tension or pulsation, damage to one or both temples, dizziness, vomiting, sensitivity to light and sound.
Insomnia is an increasingly common condition, represented by the inability to fall asleep easily, the difficulty of staying asleep and the sudden awakening without the ease of returning to sleep immediately. The condition leads to insufficient energy load, inadequate, which turns into fatigue right from the moment you wake up. Insomnia affects not only energy, but also general well-being, health and performance in the workplace.
Sleep problems can last for days, weeks or even months due to post-traumatic stress or neurological imbalances. Symptoms include difficulty falling asleep, waking up during the night, waking up in the early hours of the morning, lack of rest, feeling drowsy during the day, irritability, anxiety, difficulty concentrating and remembering, worries and mistakes.